Physics (Theory)

Module Information

Module Semester:
1
Module Part:
Theory
Sub-Module Code:
244102
Hours per Week:
2
Workshop Hours per Week:
2
Module ECTS Credits:
6
Available to ERASMUS Students:
No


Module Study Targets

Students should be able to:

  • Calculate mean, standard deviation, propagation of errors in measurement sets.
  • Generate graphs of laboratory measurements.
  • Produce linear expressions of exponential, logarithmic and power equations.
  • Define the speed, acceleration, kinetic energy, work.
  • Compute the position, velocity and acceleration mobile if the relation (a) power-position, (b) speed-strength, (c) Speed-position and (d) accelerate-position is given.
  • Define the conservation conditions of fields.
  • Calculate whether a given field is conservative.
  • Calculate the transportation quantities for simple oscillations, forced oscillations and oscillations that loose energy.
  • Calculate the quality factor of the RLC oscillation circuit in series and the quality factor of the forced mechanical oscillations.
  • Define the Fermi level.
  • Determine the energy and the no-charge area of the p-n diodes.
  • Create the diagrams of the energy versus the position in diodes.
  • Define the avalanche phenomenon.
  • Write the four Maxwell’s equations near and far of dielectric and magnetic media.
  • Define the displacement current.


Module Acquired Abilities

Physics enhances the following general abilities:

  • Analysis and synthesis of data and information by utilizing modern and necessary technologies.
  • Critical, free and creative thinking which enhances the generation of innovative methods.
  • and the making of decisions.
  • Group and independent work.
  • Respect the natural environment.


Module Description

The following description is reduced to teaching hours per subject as to complement the 52 hours of theoretical course described in detail below:

  1. ANALYSIS & PRESENTATION OF LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS (5 hours)
  2. SENSORS IN LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS (2 hours)
  3. KINETICS OF BODIES & SYSTEMS (22 hours)
  4. OSCILLATIONS & WAVES (16 hours)
  5. FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRICAL DATA (2 hours)
  6. FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS (6 hours)
  7. PHYSICS OF SOLID & ELECTRONIC PHYSICS (12 hours)
  8. ELECTROMAGNETISM (12 hours)

 

1. ANALYSIS & PRESENTATION OF LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS (5 hours)

A. ANALYSIS OF ERRORS (2.5 HOURS)

  • Importance of Error Analysis theory
  • Measurements
  • Actual value – True value
  • Probability-Distributions of measurement results
  • True error – Uncertainty – Relative Error
  • Bias-Random errors
  • Instrumental uncertainty
  • Mean-average error-bias
  • Other stitistical moments
  • CI-Significant digits
  • Scientific presentation of results
  • Rounding error propagation
  • Estimates of mean and error
  • Examples of calculations gcc and gfortran
  • Examples of actual measurements

B. LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS (2.5 HOURS)

  • Graphs in scientific presentation
  • Presentations (trends) - Standard-equations
  • Slope of straight line – Experimental definitions
  • Curves – Common types
  • Targent – Experimental definition
  • Slope at point – Experimental search
  • Adjusting a straight line
  • Method of least squares – x2-Likelihood – Weighting of the results
  • Spearman’s coefficient r2
  • Estimation of errors
  • Adjusting polynomial coefficients
  • Multiple regression – Stepwise regression
  • Other methods (PCA, Multivariate methods, etc)
  • Examples of actual measurements

2. SENSORS IN LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS (2 hours)

A. COIL MULTIMETERS (0.5 HOUR)

  • Fundamental physical principles
  • Description
  • Operating principle
  • Use multimeter as amperometers and voltometers
  • Extending the multimeter measuring range
  • Select the most suitable voltometer
  • Measuring Voltage with multimeter
  • Current measurement with multimeter

B. OSCILLOSCOPE (1 HOUR)

  • Description and parts
  • Electronic gun
  • Generator
  • Amplifiers of horizontal & vertical deviations
  • Adjusting the beam intensity
  • Beam deflection systems – electrostatic, magnetic
  • Basic operation buttons
  • Measuring angles with the oscilloscope
  • DC voltage measurement
  • AC voltage measurement
  • Composition-contribution mutual vertical oscillations Lissajous-Curves
  • Measurement of frequency through time difference
  • Measurement of frequency through Lissajous curves

C. SENSORS (0.5 HOUR)

  • Deformation sensors
  • Pressure sensors
  • Temperature sensors
  • Humidity sensor

3. KINETICS OF BODIES & SYSTEMS (22 hours)

A. DYNAMICS (4 HOURS)

  • Speed
  • Αcceleration
  • Smooth linear motion
  • Newton's laws
  • Linear variable motion
  • Mechanical movement of body and body systems
  • Typical examples

B. ENERGY (1 HOUR)

  • Work-energy
  • Theorem of kinetic energy
  • Conservative forces

C. GRAVITY (1 HOUR)

  • Acceleration of gravity
  • Gravity field
  • Intensity of gravitational field
  • Free body drop
  • Laboratory calculation gravitational acceleration through freefall

4. OSCILLATIONS & WAVES (16 hours)

A. MECHANICAL OSCILLATIONS (7 HOURS)

  • Springs and Hooke's Law
  • Harmonic oscillation spring
  • Fixed-oscillation relative to natural frequency
  • Oscillation spring system
  • Simple pendulum
  • Free vibration pendulum
  • Descending oscillating pendulum-impact resistance
  • Flow materials internal friction
  • Quality factor of oscillation
  • Laboratory calculation sizes through oscillating body
  • Laboratory calculation of gravitational acceleration through vibration
  • Laboratory calculation of vibration resistance
  • Molecular background of oscillatory behavior-tension, compression and torsion

B. WAVES (7 HOURS)

  • Harmonic waves
  • Equation of harmonic wave
  • Phase velocity and group velocity
  • Equation of wave
  • Harmonics and wave energy
  • T Waves in three-dimensional space
  • Geometric representation
  • Energy density and wave intensity
  • Equation of plane waves
  • Spherical wave equation
  • Attenuation of elastic waves
  • Acoustic waves
  • Nature of acoustic waves
  • Fourier Analysis
  • Unit db and dbm
  • Laboratory calculation of attenuation coefficient of waves

C. NORMAL OSCILLATION MODES (2 HOURS)

  • Normal oscillations of many particles system
  • Normal oscillations of elastic string
  • Details of natural musical body
  • Laboratory study of normal oscillation modes

5. FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRICAL DATA (2 hours)

A. ELECTRIC RESISTANCE (1 HOUR)

  • Definition
  • Measuring resistance with multimeter
  • Measuring resistance with voltometer and ammeter-minimum measurement errors
  • Resistance parallel to the voltometer
  • Resistor in series with the ammeter
  • Maximum resistance determination of measurable

B. ELECTRIC SOURCES (0.5 HOUR)

  • Electromotive force
  • Internal source-polar voltage resistance
  • ODR-induced mechanical moving conductor pattern
  • Electrolytic potential depolarization electrodes
  • Accumulators
  • Lead accumulator
  • Nickel alkaline accumulator
  • Galvanic cells
  • Non-rechargeable batteries

C. CAPACITORS (0.5 HOUR)

  • Extended-localized electrostatic fields
  • Localized field capacity
  • Definitions
  • Units of measurements
  • Energy and energy density of localized electrostatic field
  • Forms of capacitors

6. FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS (6 hours)

A. RC CIRCUIT (2 HOURS)

  • Charging capacitor
  • Discharging capacitor
  • Time constant RC-statistical significance
  • Transition behavior of RC circuit
  • Differential load of RC circuit

B. RL CIRCUIT (0.5 HOURS)

  • RL time constant-statistical significance
  • Transition behavior of RL circuit

C. RLC CIRCUITS IN SERIES (3.5 HOURS)

  • Impedance
  • Definitions
  • Transition behavior RLC circuit
  • Frequency
  • Supercritical depreciation
  • Critical damping
  • Subcritical damping
  • Comparison of three types of depreciation
  • Harmonically excited RLC circuits
  • Forced oscillations
  • Relationship quality factor and resonance curves
  • Physical significance of the quality factor
  • RLC circuit in parallel
  • Maximum impedance
  • Maximum power

7. PHYSICS OF SOLID & ELECTRONIC PHYSICS (12 hours)

A. THEORY (6 HOURS)

  • Particles & Waves
  • De Broglie waves
  • Equation of Scrhoendinger
  • Linear energy spectrum persons
  • Quantum numbers
  • Atomic physics concepts
  • Free energy spectrum and electron beam
  • Fundamental and excited individual situation
  • Energy bands
  • Energy spectrum of electrons in a crystal
  • Distinction conductor-insulator-semiconductor
  • Electrical conductivity of semiconductors
  • Intrinsic semiconductors
  • Semiconductors impurities
  • Effective electron mass
  • Holes and electrons
  • Release and reconnection bodies
  • Contact p-n
  • Contact p-n in thermal equilibrium
  • Contact potential
  • Contact p-n under the influence of external electro field

B. ELECTRON EMISSION FROM METALS (1 HOUR)

  • Function Fermi-Dirac distribution
  • Thermionic electron emission
  • Laboratory study of thermionic electron emission from metal

C. OTHER SEMICONDUCTORS (3 HOURS)

  • Photoelectric phenomenon
  • Internal photoelectric effect
  • Einstein's photoelectric equation
  • Photodiodes
  • LED Behavior
  • Non-illuminated LED
  • Illuminated LED
  • Saturation current
  • Dark current
  • Characteristic curve of photodiode
  • Photoelectric cell
  • Characteristic curves of photocells
  • Solar cell
  • Solar element under load

D. DIODES (1 HOUR)

  • Laboratory characteristic of electron-holes
  • Laboratory characteristic Zener diode

E. LASER (1 HOUR)

  • Wave and particle nature of light
  • Contribution light
  • Contribution coherent light barrier
  • Polarization of light
  • Laser radiation
  • Reverse populations metastable state
  • Laser ruby
  • Laser He-Ne
  • Laser radiation properties
  • Laser applications
  • Laboratory study laser light contribution in dam
  • Laboratory study of light polarization

8. ELECTROMAGNETISM (12 hours)

A. RELATIVE MOVEMENTS FIELD (2 HOURS)

  • Properties of EM forces
  • Movement in standing EM fields
  • Sliding in curves and non uniform magnetic fields
  • Movement in varying EM fields
  • Earth radiation belts

B. AMPERE'S & GAUSS'S LAWS (2 HOURS)

  • Law of Ampere
  • Gauss law
  • Forces between current carrying conductors

C. MUTUAL INDUCTION & INDUCTANCE (3 HOURS)

  • Faraday law
  • Displacement current
  • Self-induction
  • Conjugated fields
  • Magnetic field energy

D. MAXWELL EQUATIONS(4 HOURS)

  • Maxwell equations in vacuum without sources and sources
  • Magnetic field and magnetic induction
  • Electric field and dielectric displacement
  • Dissemination of EM fields in conductors

 


Module Student Evaluation

Assessment Language: Greek and English for Erasmus students.

Qualification theoretical part (60%)

  1. A written final examination (50%) comprising the methodological solving of exercises and the and analysis of issues in mechanics, electromagnetism, oscillations and waves.
  2. Participation in project (5%)
  3. Participation in class (5%)

Evaluation laboratory portion (40%)

  1. Laboratory Practice
  2. Individual or group (maximum 3 people) report to each laboratory exercise that includes a description of the exercise, presentation of measurement, presentation of results (calculations, charts, etc.) and drawing conclusions. (20%).
  3. Weekly oral examination at issue in making laboratory exercise (40%)
  4. In the presence of (10%)
  5. Final written examination (30%)

In the theoretical part are able isobars exculpatory progress (2) during the semester.

The criteria are posted on the site http://dniko.herokuapp.com/


Bibliography

  • H.D. Young, "Physics", Pearson 13th edition, 2011
  • M. Aloson, E. Finn, "Fundamental University Physics", 1992
  • J. Willey and Sons, "Physics", 1992
  • "Physics for Scientists and Engineers", Serway – SGSS, 1992
  • McGraw-Hill, "Berkley Physics Courses", 1978

Module Links