# Physics (Laboratory)

## Module Information

Module Semester:
1
Module Part:
Laboratory
Sub-Module Code:
245102
Hours per Week:
2
Module ECTS Credits:
6
Available to ERASMUS Students:
No
Module Staff:

## Module Study Targets

Students should be able to:

• Calculate mean, standard deviation, propagation of errors in measurement sets.
• Generate graphs of laboratory measurements.
• Produce linear expressions of exponential, logarithmic and power equations.
• Define the speed, acceleration, kinetic energy, work.
• Compute the position, velocity and acceleration mobile if the relation (a) power-position, (b) speed-strength, (c) Speed-position and (d) accelerate-position is given.
• Define the conservation conditions of fields.
• Calculate whether a given field is conservative.
• Calculate the transportation quantities for simple oscillations, forced oscillations and oscillations that loose energy.
• Calculate the quality factor of the RLC oscillation circuit in series and the quality factor of the forced mechanical oscillations.
• Define the Fermi level.
• Determine the energy and the no-charge area of the p-n diodes.
• Create the diagrams of the energy versus the position in diodes.
• Define the avalanche phenomenon.
• Write the four Maxwell’s equations near and far of dielectric and magnetic media.
• Define the displacement current.

## Module Acquired Abilities

Physics enhances the following general abilities:

• Analysis and synthesis of data and information by utilising modern and necessary technologies
• Critical, free and creative thinking which enhances the generation of innovative methods and the making of decisions
• Group and independent work
• Respect the natural environment

## Module Description

This includes the following laboratory exercises: (13 weeks total)

## LABORATORY EXERCISES IN MECHANICS (4)

• Free oscillating spring-elastic constant calculation (Calculation spring constant) [EM-EXERCISE 6]
• Study of oscillating pendulum-calculation gravitational acceleration, quality factor (Measurement gravitational acceleration with a simple pendulum) [EM-EXERCISE 5A]
• Stationary mechanical waves (measurement of the speed of sound with the Quincke method) [EM-EXERCISE 12] and & Study motion theorem energy project (Aerotrochia) [EM-EXERCISE 4]
• Travelling mechanical waves-db & dbm units (Measurement of sound intensity and
• determination of the attenuation coefficient) [EM-EXERCISE 11]

## LABORATORY EXERCISES IN ELECTRICITY ELECTRONIC PHYSICS & ELECTROMAGNETISM (7)

• Measurement of electromotive force and the internal resistor of voltage sources- capacitor's capacity measurement) [EM-EXERCISE 5 & 6]
• Resonance of RLC circuits-quality factor calculation circuit (the RLC circuit behavior analysis in alternating current) [EM-EXERCISE 10]
• Thermionic electron emission from metals [EM-Exercises 11] Study and photo conductive Elements- photovoltaic elements (photoconducting elements) [EM-EXERCISE 12]
• Light emitting diode (LED) [EM EXERCISES 17 & 18]
• Contact-diodes Zener diodes [EM EXERCISE 19]
• Physics Laser radiation study [EM EXERCISE 15]
• Attenuation of gamma radiation in matter-GM Counter [EM EXERCISE 16]

The above include additional theoretical teaching in the following passages

## 1.ANALYSIS & PRESENTATION OF LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS (5 hours)

### A. ANALYSIS OF ERRORS (2.5 hours)

• Importance of Error Analysis theory
• Measurements
• Actual value-True value
• Probability-Distributions of measurement results
• True error-Uncertainty-Relative Error
• Bias-Random errors
• Instrumental uncertainty
• Mean-Average Error-bias
• Other statistical moments
• CI-Significant digits Scientific presentation of results-Rounding
• Error propagation
• Estimates of mean and error
• Examples of calculations gcc and gfortran
• Examples of actual measurement examples

### B. PRESENTATION OF LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS (2.5 hours)

• Graphs in scientific presentation
• Presentations (trends) -Standard-equations
• Slope of straight line- Experimental definitions
• Curves-Common types
• Tangent-Experimental definition
• slope at point-Experimental Search
• Method of least squares-x2-Likelihood-Weighting of the results
• Spearman's coefficient r2
• Estimation of errors
• Multiple regression-Stepwise regression
• Other methods (PCA, Multivariate methods, etc.)
• Examples of actual measurements

## 2. SENSORS IN LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS (2 hours)

Measurements of electrical systems

### A. COIL MULTIMETERS (0.5 hours)

• Fundamental physical principles
• Description
• Operating Principle
• Use as multimeter as amerometers and voltometers
• Extending the multimeter measuring range
• Select the most suitable voltometer
• Measuring Voltage with Multimeter
• Current measurement with multimeter

### B. OSCILLOSCOPE (1 hour)

• Description & parts
• Electronic gun
• Generator
• Amplifiers of horizontal & vertical deviations
• Beam deflection systems-electrostatic, magnetic
• Basic operation buttons
• Measuring Angles with the oscilloscope
• DC voltage measurement
• AC voltage measurement
• Composition-contribution mutual vertical oscillations Lissajous-Curves
• Measurement of frequency through time difference
• Measurement fof requency through Lissajous curves

### C. SENSORS (0.5 hours)

• Deformation sensors
• Pressure sensors
• Temperature sensors
• Humidity sensors

## Module Student Evaluation

Assessment Language: Greek and English for Erasmus students.

Qualification theoretical part (60%)

1. A written final examination (50%) comprising the methodological solving of exercises and the and analysis of issues in mechanics, electromagnetism, oscillations and waves.
2. Participation in project (5%)
3. Participation in class (5%)

Evaluation laboratory portion (40%)

1. Laboratory Practice
2. Individual or group (maximum 3 people) report to each laboratory exercise that includes a description of the exercise, presentation of measurement, presentation of results (calculations, charts, etc.) and drawing conclusions. (20%).
3. Weekly oral examination at issue in making laboratory exercise (40%)
4. In the presence of (10%)
5. Final written examination (30%)

In the theoretical part are able isobars exculpatory progress (2) during the semester.

The criteria are posted on the site http://dniko.herokuapp.com/

## Bibliography

• H.D. Young, "Physics", Pearson 13th edition, 2011
• M. Aloson, E. Finn, "Fundamental University Physics", 1992
• J. Willey and Sons, "Physics", 1992
• "Physics for Scientists and Engineers", Serway – SGSS, 1992
• McGraw-Hill, "Berkley Physics Courses", 1978